Process[ edit ] Smelting involves more than just melting the metal out of its ore. Most ores are a chemical compound of the metal and other elements, such as oxygen as an oxide , sulfur as a sulfide , or carbon and oxygen together as a carbonate. To extract the metal, workers must make these compounds undergo a chemical reaction. Smelting therefore consists of using suitable reducing substances that combine with those oxidizing elements to free the metal. Roasting[ edit ] In the case of carbonates and sulfides, a process called “roasting” drives out the unwanted carbon or sulfur, leaving an oxide, which can be directly reduced. Roasting is usually carried out in an oxidizing environment. A few practical examples: The carbon dioxide and water are expelled into the atmosphere, leaving copper II oxide , which can be directly reduced to copper as described in the following section titled Reduction. Galena , the most common mineral of lead , is primarily lead sulfide PbS.
There is archaeological evidence for a continuous cultural tradition from the Bronze to the Iron Age s. In the Amarna age fourteenth century B. Additionally there is a thirteenth-century B. Despite these facts showing that the coastal cities were occupied without interruption or change in population, the term “Phoenician” is now normally applied to them in the Iron Age beginning about the twelfth century B.
The Phoenicians, whose lands corresponds to present-day Lebanon and coastal parts of Israel and Syria, probably arrived in the region in about B.
Remove skin from kidney and cut into small pieces. Add onion cut up roughly. Nearly cover with cold water or a mix of water and a good stout dark beer, Guinness will do nicely. Mix flour in a cup into a paste with cold water. Add to meat, kidney, onion and water in saucepan. Season with pepper and salt.
Cast Iron Cauldrons
The earliest fireplaces were simply places where you set the fire. There might be an opening in the wall or roof to let out the smoke. Later a smoke hood would be added to channel the smoke up and away from the room, and eventually the fire place evolved into what we think of now as a fireplace. This is a typical fireplace from the colonial settlement at Jamestown.
What you’re seeing in this picture is half of the entire house. The earliest American fireplaces were fairly small, but as things became more settled, and there was more time for chopping and collecting wood, they began to get larger, up to 8 or 10 feet wide in some cases.
Food historians generally agree colcannon belongs to the Irish. This conclusion is based on linguistic evidence, ingredient availability, and culinary preference. Combinations of potatoes, cabbage, and leeks were also embraced by many other cultures and cuisines, most notably Germany, Russia, France, Scotland, England. These hardy, economical, filling foods sated the bellies of the working and poorer classes.
Cabbages and their cousins were known to ancient cooks. They were thought to have several medicinal attributes. The Romans are said to have introduced cabbages to Europe, with the possible exception of Ireland, where [According to C. Potatoes were introduced to to Europe by 16th century explorers. They were first regarded as curiosities, not readily embraced as food.
The French, then the Irish, were among the first to recognize the fact that potatoes could keep a nation from starving.
Archaeology in Europe News
Ancient Anatolia Prehistoric cultures of Anatolia Anatolia may be defined in geographic terms as the area bounded to the north by the Black Sea , to the east and south by the Southeastern Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea , and to the west by the Aegean Sea and Sea of Marmara ; culturally the area also includes the islands of the eastern Aegean Sea. In most prehistoric periods the regions to the south and west of Anatolia were under the influence of, respectively, Syria and the Balkans.
Much visible evidence of the earliest cultures of Anatolia may have been lost owing to the large rise in sea levels that followed the end of the last Ice Age about 10, years ago and to deposition of deep alluvium in many coastal and inland valleys. Rock engravings of animals on the walls of caves near Antalya , on the Mediterranean coast, suggest a relationship with the Upper Paleolithic art of western Europe. Associated with these are rock shelters, the stratified occupational debris of which has the potential finally to clarify the transitional phases between cave-dwelling society and the Neolithic economy of the first agricultural communities.
Odd Ideas by Rorschach’s Blot reviews Odd little one shots that may or may not be turned into their own stories. Harry Potter – Rated: M – English – Humor – Chapters: Vaughn reviews Rosie just wanted to get away from it all She never meant to be thrown down a well and end up right in the middle of her favorite series. Now she has to find her way back, but will she return to a world that hates her, or stay at Hogwarts to try to save the characters she’s come to love, some more than others.
10 Day Self Drive Tour | Top Ring Road Attractions & Snaefellsnes Peninsula
History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.
You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular.
Contrasts Thucydides positive description of the Spartan army instead suggesting that while it was impressive, it certainly was not faultless, and this fallibility was present at the Battle of Mantinea as it had been [at Plataea]. Full of praise in the way in which the Spartan army was able to regroup, act almost spontaneously and not panic in the face of unfamiliar situations.
He dismisses the idea that the Spartan organisation was complex by arguing that it worked so well because each man new exactly what was expected of him. The officer who refused to follow the orders of the Spartan commander in chief, Pausanius, and remained in position was forced to move or be left behind. Inability to take a fortified position Spartans could not win if they were attacking a defensive position Herodotus asserts that while the Spartans could not take a Persian defensive position, the Athenians were able to storm it successfully.
In the openining moves of the Pelopennesian War, during the invasions of Attica led by King Archiadamos, the Spartans were unable to mount an attack on the walls of Athens. Spartans — on one occasion — did suirrender rather than face certain death. During the Peloponnesian War, a group of Spartiates, including well-born men with connections to the elite at Sparta, surrendered.
Identifying and Dating Unmarked or Unknown Maker Vintage and Antique Cast Iron Skillets
Let us now look at these castings and see what we can make of them. How much bronze is in the pillar? How much did it weigh? We are told that the height is 8. The thickness of the pillar we are told is a hands breadth. My hands breadth is 97mm.
Yet the Anatolian Plate is sliding east and west along the Eurasian Plate. As can be imagined, this is a very unstable part of the world and the site of some of the major catastrophic disasters recorded in the history of man. The yellow circles are areas where earthquakes greater than 7. Thou didst cause the deeps to tremble and didst alarm the spheres. Box , in the Apocrypha and Pseudepigraphy of the Old Testament, ed.
Charles Velikovsky on Exodus and Mount Sinai: Twisting of strata and building of mountains, earthquakes and rumbling of volcanoes joined in an infernal din. It was a voice not only in the desert of Sinai; the entire world must have heard it. Let us look at eighteen examples.